ORIGIN OF RACISM AND CASTEISM IN THE WORLD SOCIETY
FOUR STAGES FOR SLAVERY:
First stage – Ethnic Groups:
Society living as ethnic groups all over the world.
Second stage – Political Power:
Amongst the ethnic groups political power emerges – Petty Rulers.
Third Stage: – Control over other ethnic group:
When one ethnic group defeats the other ethnic group it starts controlling the defeated ethnic group.
Fourth Stage: – Slavery:
The conquering ethnic group starts enslaving the vanquished ethnic group and rules over them. When the defeated ethnic group regains political power, it starts enslaving the other ethnic group. Thus slavery is perpetual..
These Four stages occur all over the world through the ages.
POLITICAL POWER ALONE IS THE ROOT CAUSE FOR SLAVERY.
OFFSHOOT OF SLAVERY IS RACISM
fifth Stage : Racism
When a ruling ethnic group wants to permanently maintain slavery over another ethnic group once defeated by them, they will formulate new philosophy to justify enslavement. In this manner Racism emerges as a philosophy. Biological factors, genes, skin pigmentation, colour differentiation and similar factors… are focused and described as various criteria to justify racism.
POLITICAL POWER AND PHILOSOPHY JUSTIFYING ENSLAVEMENT ARE ROOT CAUSES FOR RACISM.
It should be noted that political power and a philosophy justifying enslavement are based on external factors. It has nothing to do with internal religious beliefs.
OFFSHOOT OF RACISM IS CASTEISM :
Sixth Stage: Casteism:
If the ruling ethnic group is a minority and the enslaved ethnic group is the majority, it is natural for the ruling minority to have fear about the majority group that they would unite together and dethrone the minority at any opportune time. Therefore the ruling minority group is forced to keep the majority weak by fragmenting them into so many divisions and making the divisions to hate and degrade each other. In India, this has been achieved by introducing a graded system called caste system.
For the majority to be fragmented into so many divisions and making them to hate, degrade and fight against each other, the religious beliefs of the majority have been utilized. For this, the minority has twisted and misinterpreted the religious beliefs of the majority according to their selfish interests.
It would be of interest to note that this can be done only in respect of a nation where the ruling minority has no religion of its own and the majority ruled by them have their own religions. If the ruling minority has a religion of its own, it would not opt to follow the religions of the majority and manipulate it according to the interest of the ruling minority.
(1) POLITICAL POWER,
(2) PHILOSOPHIES JUSTIFYING ENSLAVEMENT AND
(3) RELIGIOUS SANCTION BY TWISTED RELIGIOUS BELIEFS ARE MAINTAINING CASTEISM.
- Root cause for Slavery – Political power
- Root cause for Racism – Political Power + Philosophy justifying enslavement
- Root cause for Casteism – Political Power + Philosophy justifying enslavement + Religious sanction by manipulated religious beliefs.
No reference for Casteism in classical Tamil literature:
To understand the origin of casteism, we need to analyze the classical literature of India, which are in Tamil and Sanskrit. These are the only two classical languages of India.
Between these two classical languages, Sanskrit was never a spoken language of the common people, but a literary language of the scholars alone. Hence we cannot see the natural developments taking place throughout the ages in Sanskrit, as we see in natural languages. So, the origin of casteism cannot be traced in Sanskrit literature.
The literature in Tamil, a language of the common people as well as the scholars, can be classified in three different stages, in correlation with the caste system.
1. The Literature before the formation of the caste system i.e., Ancient Sangam literature (Classical Tamil Literature)
2. The Literature after the formation of the caste system i.e., Medieval literature and
3. The Literature after the establishment of the caste system i.e., Later literature.
In Ancient Sangam literature and Thirukkural there is no reference for the caste stratification but occupational variations, which occur not only in India but also in the world society. Many confuse occupational variations with casteism since they are not aware of the intricacies of casteism in India.
To understand the culture of the Ancient Tamils and the Indians, before the formation of the caste system, careful study on Sangam literature i.e., Ancient Classical Tamil Literature is highly indispensable.
Hence, without having in-depth knowledge of Tamil, especially that of Sangam literature, one cannot understand the culture of the Ancient Tamils and the Indians and the origin of the caste system.
Occupational Variations and Casteism:
It is not uncommon to see occupational groups that exist all over the world. Amongst these groups there are Rulers, Priests, Traders, Peasants and other workers. Social Status and Positional values are attributed according to their occupation in the world society and it can never be regarded as casteism.
Many confuse occupational variations with casteism since they are not aware of the intricacies of casteism.
Sangam literature, the ancient Tamil literature, which make mention about the four groups ( ‘Naarpaal’ ), refers to only occupational variations.
It is a general conception that the four kinds of occupational variations are caste discriminations. In fact they are not caste discriminations, but refer to the differences in occupation. Following song of Sangam literature elucidate this fact evidently.
Four kinds of occupations described in Sangam Literature
Following song from classical Sangam literature explains that there were occupational variations and not racial or caste discriminations. (Thudiyan, Panan, Paraiyan, Kadamban – Purananooru. 233, 7)
“Paanan, paraiyan, kadamban, thudiyan
Innaan gallathu kudiyum illai”.
¨ Paanan, an ancient class of Tamil bards and minstrels.
¨ Paraiyan, who beat mehlham(drums), as well as proclaiming the king’s announcements – Drummer as well as a Proclaimer.
¨ Thudian, players of thudi, a small percussion instrument.
¨ Kadamban who beat a large bass-like drum.
in Sangam literature, terms such as
¨ Anthanar ( Priest / Elders etc.,),
¨ Arasar (King),
¨ Vanikar (businessman) and
¨ Velaalar (other labourers)
refer to different occupations. Within a family we can see the members belonging to these classifications. There was occupational variation alone and not caste discrimination.
Following song clearly expresses that all these names are based on their occupational variations and not on caste or race.
“Vetrumai therintha Naarpaalullhum
Keezhpaal oruvan karkkin
Mehrpaal oruvan avankat padume”.
-(Puranaanooru – Pandian Nedunchezhiyan)
If a person who is in a low status in the society is educated, the person who is in the high status will be considered under his position.
Though a person is economically, politically, or socially holding a good position, when comparing with a person who doesn’t have any such power but well educated, the powers of the earlier person will not be regarded higher than the later one. This is the way of life described in Sangam literature.
There was no caste discrimination in India before 7th c.A.D. It was the Aryan Brahmins who devised caste stratification and implemented it on the Dravidians, the original inhabitants of India, once they captured political power in India.It should be noted here that the term ‘Dravidian’ is the mutilated form of the term ‘Thamizhan’. Those who could not pronounce the term ‘Thamizhan’ have pronounced it as ‘Dravidian’ in Sanskrit, which refers to the original inhabitants of India.
Caste stratification – against Indian people:
The groups of foreign invaders who came in various periods, without any religion of their own, are Persians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Huns, were denoted by a common term ‘Aryan’ . The different periods of their invasion of India are as follows:
1. Persians – 6th c.B.C.
2. Greeks – 4th c.B.C.
3. Sakas – 2nd c.B.C.
4. Kushans – 1st c.A.D
5. Huns – 4th c.A.D. and
6. Romans – 4th c.B.C. They were not invaders but came for trade purpose and were also included in the term ‘Aryan’ since they also came without any religion of their own
Until 7th c.A.D. the invading groups were not united together. Because of their united effort, they were able to capture the political power of the Indian Dravidians in North India and they formed ‘Aryavardha’, the Kingdom of the Aryans. Once the Aryans captured political power, they devised the principles of racism and casteism and wrote the Law of Manu. In 9th c.A.D. caste stratification got religious sanction. How the Aryans implemented caste stratification on the Dravidians can be seen from the following:
1. The six groups such as the Persians, Greeks, Sakas, Kushans and Huns who invaded India and the Romans who came to trade with India came together and formed a coalition in 7th Century A.D.
2. The general reasons for the unity of these foreign invaders were that all of them were foreigners and white skinned.
3. They were all forced to keep the people conquered by them under their control.
4. With that coalition, they captured the political Power from the Dravidian ruler Harshavardha. The area captured by them was called ‘Aryavardha’. They ruled Aryavardha from 7th to 12th c. A.D.
5. As soon as they captured the political power, in order to suppress the Dravidians, the original inhabitants of India, they devised Law of Manu.
6. Law of Manu elevates the whites as superior by birth and degrades the non-whites as inferior by birth
7. The Aryans, who are minority in the Indian population have brought the Dravidians who form 90% of Indian population under their control by imposing Law of Manu on them.
8. In order to brainwash the Dravidians as if they are inferior to the Aryans, they used Saivism and Vaishnavism, the denominations of St. Thomas Tamil Chrisitianity, known as Hindu, religion, as their instrument.
9. The fundamental principles of Saivism and Vaishnavism were distorted, and were misinterpreted by the Aryans to justify racial and caste discriminating principles.
10. It was Adisankarara who had given religious colour to this caste discriminating principles and transformed the Law of Manu as religious book.
Thus the Aryans used Saivism and Vaishnavism, the denominations of St. Thomas Tamil Christianity, to break down the ‘Divine Unity’ and incarcerate the Dravidians through the principles of Law of Manu.
According to caste stratification of the Aryans,
90% of Indian population are Sub Low Caste:
If we deeply analyze caste stratification, devised by the Aryans, we can see three major divisions in it.
* High caste
* Low caste and
* Sub Low caste.
According to the caste stratification, among the Aryans
* Brahmins who form 3 percent of Indian population are high caste;
* Kshatriyas and Vasishyas who form approximately 7 percent of Indian population are low caste next to Brahmins;
* Dravidians, the original inhabitants of India and who form 90% of Indian population are Sub low castes (either Sudras or Panchamas).
Foreigners are branded as High castes and Low castes
Dravidians are branded as Sub Low castes (Sudras and Panchamas).
90% of Dravidians labelled as Sudras and Panchamas:
Among the Dravidians,
1. Those who identified themselves with the Aryans were labeled as the highest caste among the Dravidians;
2. those who betrayed as high caste;
3. those who stooped down as middle caste;
4. those who opposed as low caste or untouchables and
5. those who ran to the mountains as tribals.
After the emergence of caste stratification, with a main aim to implement and uphold caste system, the Brahminical and pro-Brahminical commentators twisted. misinterpreted and corrupted the ancient Indian literature. Consequently the concepts explained in ancient Indian literature were totally misunderstood.. Adi Sankara played a key role in this regard. Adi Sankara interpreted ‘Aham Brahmasmi’ as ‘I am God’, and this is the basic concept of Advaita which is anti-God (anti – Christ principle).
Concept of cycle of birth of Jainism was twisted and misinterpreted that according to the amount of one’s good deeds in his previous births he would be born as the one in the higher rank in the caste stratification and had he committed bad deeds he would be born in the lower grades. The grade of their birth would be decided by the amount of their good or bad deeds. The Brahmins have a tall claim that they are born in that particular caste because of their good deeds in their previous birth.
The ones who vehemently opposed the supremacy of the Brahmins were suppressed to be in the lowest rungs of the ladder of caste system; the ones who accepted their supremacy were treated to be in the upper rungs of the caste ladder. But Brahmins would always be seated at the top most position in the caste stratification; thereby the Brahmin supremacy can never be questioned, and the major three powers such as, religious (Brahmins), political (Kshatriyas) and the economical powers (Vaishyas) are the birth right of the three classes of the Aryans.
They emphasized that everyone should follow the Dharma of his caste (Varnashrama Dharma) and no one should violate this Dharma.
“If a man of the lowest caste injures a man of a higher caste with some particular part of his body, that very part of his body should be cut off; If a man raises his hand or a stick, he should have his hand cut off; if in anger he strikes with his foot, he should have his foot cut off. If a man of inferior caste tries to sit down on the same seat as a man of superior caste, he should be branded on the hip and banished, or have his buttocks cut off. If in his pride he spits on him, the king should have his two lips cut off; if he urinates on him, the penis; if he farts at him, the anus. If he grabs him by the hair, or by the feet, the beard, the neck, or the testicles, (the king) should unhesitatingly have his hands cut off.” (Laws of Manu, Chapter.8:279-283)
Adi- Sankara instituted Four Sankara Mutts mainly to implement race and caste system on a permanent footing in the Dravidian Indian soil.
Thus, the racial and caste system totally segregated the people into so many groups and completely destroyed the concept of ‘Divine Unity’. The Aryan Brahmins who are minority in the Indian population have incarcerated the Dravidians, who form 90% Indian population through the twisted concepts of St.Thomas Tamil Christianity.
AN APPEAL TO UNO
Eradication of Casteism, Racism, Racial Discrimination, and Related Intolerances, for which purpose the United Nations organized a conference at Durban.- South Africa in 2001,
Regarding racism and casteism, my father and I have written a book titled,
“International Racism is the child of India’s casteism – A Historical perspective and an appeal to UNO”
and presented it to the High Commissioner of Human Rights in the conference and after some months the UNO, that could not understand the problems of casteim previously, had accepted that caste discrimination existed in India.
Solution for bringing ‘Divine Unity in Christ’ – ‘Soulology of the Tamils’:
Concept of ‘Divine Unity in Christ’ is systematically and beautifully explained in the soulology of the Tamils, the crown of St.Thomas Tamil Christianity. In fact it is the explanation of the concept of ‘One Fold One Shepherd’ , which is beyond denominations, religions, race or any kind of discriminations.
“Science without religion is Lame;
Religion without Science is Blind”
Says Einstein. Systematic and scientific study on ‘Soul’ (different from ‘Spirit / Life’) is termed as ‘Soulology’. ‘Soulology’, the crown of St.Thomas Tamil Christianity, that brings unity and brotherhood in society, is decoded and disclosed. Hence it is the need of the hour to understand Soulology of the Tamils and bring awareness in the world society.
[Papers on ‘Soulology’ presented by Dr.M.Deivanayagam, in the ‘First International Conference on ‘Thamizhar Samayam’ (Religion of the Tamils) were published under the title ‘Religion and Soulology of the Tamils that unite the religions of the world’ (‘Vulaga Samayangalhai Onrinaikkum Thamizhar Samayamum Thamizhar Aanmaviyalum’ – in Tamil). This book on ‘Soulology’ was well received by the scholars. ]
The Director in charge of Central Institute of Classical Tamil, run by Government of India, having realized the significance of this book, that puts an end to Religious and Communal conflicts and brings brotherhood and unity in the society, ordered 500 copies and distributed them to the scholars of various universities. He also invited Dr.M.Deivanagam to speak on ‘Soulology’, in various universities. Hence he delivered lectures in Tamil University – Thanjavur, Venkateswara University – Andhra, Kamarajar University – Madurai and Vooris College -Vellore. There was very good response among the scholars of these universities. The lectures and the question / answer sessions were completely video recorded.
Dr. M. Deivanayagam & Dr. D. Devakala
Origin of Racism and Casteism in the World Society